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HOME > Product category > Fluorescent proteins > Dronpa-Green


  • Photoswitchable fluorescent protein
  • Reversible "on-off" switching
  • Useful for molecular dynamics investigation

The fluorescent protein Dronpa gene was originally cloned from stony coral Echinophyllia sp. (Kikka-sango in Japanese).

CoralHue™ Dronpa-Green1 (DG1) is a monomeric green fluorescent protein that is photochromic: its fluorescence is reversible, with "on-off" switching by demand through exposure to di fferent wavelengths of light. DG 1 bleaches immediately following strong excitation at -500 nm. Bleached DG1 completely regains its bright green fluorescence after irradiation at -400 nm. This unique property of DG1 is useful for repeated measurements of mobility dynamics (e.g. diffusion, transport) of fluorescent-labeled molecules in living cells.

Fluorescent properties



Dronpa-Green spectrum data files (text files)
Dronpa-Green excitation (8K) Dronpa-Green emission (4K)
Dronpa-Green3 excitation (4K) Dronpa-Green3 emission (4K)

Note: The file is in a tab-delimited text format. It contains values of the wavelength (0.5nm spacing) and brightness (fluorescence intensity peak value normalized to 1). Use a spreadsheet program to create a spectrum that will help you in choosing the appropriate excitation filter, dichroic mirror and fluorescence filter.

CHARACTERISTIC Dronpa-Green1 Dronpa-Green3
Oligomerization Monomer Monomer
Number of amino acid 225 225
Excit./Emiss. maxima (nm) 503/518 491/514
Molar extinction coefficient (M-1cm-1) 95,000 (503 nm) 58,000 (487 nm)
Fluorescence quantum yield 0.85 0.28
Brightness*1 80.7 16.2
pH sensitivity pKa=5.0 pKa=5.0
Cytotoxicity*2 No No

*1Brightness: Molar Extinction Coefficient ×Fluorescence Quantum Yield / 1000
*2Toxicity when expressed in HeLa cells

Performance and use

Spectra change of Dronpa

The absorption spectrum of Dronpa at pH7.4 displays a major peak at 503 nm and a minor peak at 390 nm. The absorbance of Dronpa at pH 7.4 were measured during continuous illumination at 490 nm ± 10. After a 40-min incubation, nearly all the Dronpa molecules had been converted into a neutral, nonfluorescent state.

Ando, R., Mizuno, H. and Miyawaki, A.(2004) Science 306, 1370-1373.

Photochoromic properties of Dronpa

Dronpa was transfected into HeLa cells followed by fixation and the time course of fluorescence was monitored. Photoactivation of DG1 required much less photon energy than did photobleaching, with respective quantum yields of 0.37 (ΦPA) and 0.00032 (ΦPB).

Ando, R., Mizuno, H. and Miyawaki, A.(2004) Science 306, 1370-1373.

Monitoring the nuclear import of ERK1-Dronpa in Cos7 cells

(A) Confocal image of a COS7 cell expressing ERK1-Dronpa. (B) Schematic of the cell shown in A. The regions illuminated with the 405-nm laser line are shown in gray. The illuminated regions were inside the cytosol (left) or nucleus (right) to monitor nuclear import (C→N). The time periods monitored for nuclear import are shown in red. (D and E) Nuclear import of ERK1-Dronpa before stimulation of D or after an 11-min incubation with EGF (E).

Ando, R., Mizuno, H. and Miyawaki, A.(2004) Science 306, 1370-1373.

Molecular imaging of Sar1P-Dronpa in yeast

CoralHue™ Dronpa-Green1 is useful for monitoring molecular dynamics. Sar1P, of a small G protein family, was fused with Dronpa-Green1 (Sar1P-Dronpa). Sar1P-Dronpa was expressed in yeast. The videos show Sar1P-Dronpa monitoring molecular dynamics in the mother cell and daughter cells.

Provided by Dr. Kurokawa and Dr. Nakano Live Cell Molecular Imaging Research Team, ASI, RIKEN

Mother cell → Daughter cell
daughter cell → Mother cell


  • Ando R, Mizuno H, Miyawaki A. Regulated fast nucleocytoplasmic shuttling observed by reversible protein highlighting. Science. (2004) 306: 1370-3. PMID: 15550670
  • Ando R, Flors C, Mizuno H, Hofkens J, Miyawaki A. Highlighted generation of fluorescence signals using simultaneous two-color irradiation on Dronpa mutants. Biophys J. (2007) 92:L97-9. PMID: 17384059
  • Habuchi S, Ando R, Dedecker P, Verheijen W, Mizuno H, Miyawaki A, Hofkens J. Reversible single-molecule photoswitching in the GFP-like fluorescent protein Dronpa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2005) 102:9511-6. PMID: 15972810
  • Habuchi S, Dedecker P, Hotta J, Flors C, Ando R, Mizuno H, Miyawaki A, Hofkens J. Photo-induced protonation/deprotonation in the GFP-like fluorescent protein Dronpa: mechanism responsible for the reversible photoswitchingPhotochem Photobiol Sci. (2006) 5:567-76. PMID: 16761085

CoralHue™ fluorescent proteins were co-developed with the Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, the Advanced Technology Development Center, the Brain Science Institute, RIKEN. MBL possesses the license and deals in the products.

Please send us a completed and signed License Acknowledgement.

Please note that the product will be shipped after we receive a completed and signed License Acknowledgement (PDF file on the right). Prior to shipping, our staff may contact you to verify the intended use of the product. Please also note that a separate agreement or a contract may be required depending on the intended use.
The product you have ordered is sold for research purpose only. It is not intended for industrial or clinical use, and shall not be used for any purposes other than research. You are also asked not to hand over or resell the product to a third party.
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